Kafir dan Mukmin dalam Perspektif Tasawuf Akhlâqî Al-Ghazali
Accusing someone who has a different understanding as a kâfir happens frequently these last several days. The people use to accuse mu’min as a kâfir event he still do praying, fasting, and tithing. Stereotyping people as a kâfir should be in line with the syarî’ah. Syarî’ah merely allows stereotyping people as a kâfir who really out of Islam, rejects Allah as his God, refuses Muhammad as His prophet, and of course, ignores his (Muhammad) taught. Accusing someone as a kâfir which merely based on contradictory view is not permitted by the syarî’ah. So, people who accuses someone infidel without prove of his ignoring to Muhammad’s taught, in fact, is a kâfir, according to al-Ghazali’s view. This kind of accusing people as a kâfir,also happened in the al-Ghazali’s era, whereso many Ulema accuse their ideological opponents as a kâfir just because of their difference in a certain understanding. Imam Hanbali ever accused Imam Asy’ari as a kâfir because Imam Asy’ari ignored Muhammad’s taught in term of Allah’s residence in arsy. Also, Imam Asy’ari ever accused Imam Hanbali as a kâfir because of his ignoring Muhammad’s taught in term of no Allah’s allies. In the plural community, al-Ghazali trough his tashawwuf akhlâkî concept, suggested mu’min to honor all kâfir, even al-Ghzali also prohibited mu’min to be kâfir, because in his opinion, kufr has blocked tazkiyah al-nafs process. Based on those discourses, al-Ghazali has formulated five criteria of people quality, whether mu’min or kâfir. Those five criteria areal-wujûd al-dzâtî, al-wujûd al-hissî, al-wujûd al-khayâlî, al-wujûd al-’aqlî, dan alwujûd al-syibhî. So, people (mu’min) should not accuse people as a kâfir easily. People should respect another people who have different understanding and faith, over tolerance. Accusing people as a kâfir is permitted merely for real kâfir who really ignores Muhammad’s taught.
Keyword: al-Ghazali, Kafir, Mukmin, Akhlâq
Copyright (c) 2019 Umar Faruq Thohir
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